Tipe Format File Audio

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Tipe Format File Audio

Open File Formats (supported by and most likely to work with our software)

  • wav – standard audio file format used mainly in Windows PCs. Commonly used for storing uncompressed (PCM), CD-quality sound files, which means that they can be large in size – around 10MB per minute of music.
  • mp3 – the MPEG Layer-3 format is the most popular format for downloading and storing music. By eliminating portions of the audio file that are essentially inaudible, mp3 files are compressed to roughly one-tenth the size of an equivalent PCM file while maintaining good audio quality. We recommend the mp3 format for music storage. It is not that good for voice storage.
  • ogg – a free, open source container format supporting a variety of codecs, the most popular of which is the audio codec Vorbis. Vorbis files are often compared to MP3 files in terms of quality. But the simple fact mp3 are so much more broadly supported makes it difficult to recommend ogg files.
  • gsm – designed for telephony use in Europe, gsm is a very practical format for telephone quality voice. It makes a good compromise between file size and quality.
  • dct – A variable codec format designed for dictation. It has dictation header information and can be encrypted (often required by medical confidentiality laws). The standard dct player is the Express Scribe Transcription Player.
  • flac – a lossless compression codec. You can think of lossless compression as like zip but for audio. If you compress a PCM file to flac and then restore it again it will be a perfect copy of the original.
  • au – the standard audio file format used by Sun, Unix and Java.
  • aiff – the standard audio file format used by Apple. It is like a wav file for the Mac.
  • vox – the vox format most commonly uses the Dialogic ADPCM (Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation) codec. Similar to other ADPCM formats, it compresses to 4-bits. Vox format files are similar to wave files except that the vox files contain no information about the file itself so the codec sample rate and number of channels must first be specified in order to play a vox file.
  • raw – a raw file can contain audio in any codec but is usually used with PCM audio data. It is rarely used except for technical tests.

Proprietary Formats (supported by our software)

  • wma – the popular Windows Media Audio format owned by Microsoft. Designed with Digital Rights Management (DRM) abilities for copy protection. Sample .wma file.
  • aac – the Advanced Audio Coding format is based on the MPEG4 audio standard owned by Dolby. A copy-protected version of this format has been developed by Apple for use in music downloaded from their iTunes Music Store.
  • atrac (.wav) – the older style Sony ATRAC format. It always has a .wav file extension. To open these files simply install the ATRAC3 drivers.
  • ra – a Real Audio format designed for streaming audio over the Internet. The .ra format allows files to be stored in a self-contained fashion on a computer, with all of the audio data contained inside the file itself.
  • ram – a text file that contains a link to the Internet address where the Real Audio file is stored. The .ram file contains no audio data itself.
  • dss – Digital Speech Standard files are an Olympus proprietary format. It is a fairly old and poor codec.
  • msv – a Sony proprietary format for Memory Stick compressed voice files. You might need a Sony plugin to load this.
  • dvf – a Sony proprietary format for compressed voice files; commonly used by Sony dictation recorders. You might need a Sony plugin to load this.
Source: http://www.nchsoftware.com/

Open File Formats (supported by and most likely to work with our software)

  • wav – standard audio file format used mainly in Windows PCs. Commonly used for storing uncompressed (PCM), CD-quality sound files, which means that they can be large in size – around 10MB per minute of music.
  • mp3 – the MPEG Layer-3 format is the most popular format for downloading and storing music. By eliminating portions of the audio file that are essentially inaudible, mp3 files are compressed to roughly one-tenth the size of an equivalent PCM file while maintaining good audio quality. We recommend the mp3 format for music storage. It is not that good for voice storage.
  • ogg – a free, open source container format supporting a variety of codecs, the most popular of which is the audio codec Vorbis. Vorbis files are often compared to MP3 files in terms of quality. But the simple fact mp3 are so much more broadly supported makes it difficult to recommend ogg files.
  • gsm – designed for telephony use in Europe, gsm is a very practical format for telephone quality voice. It makes a good compromise between file size and quality.
  • dct – A variable codec format designed for dictation. It has dictation header information and can be encrypted (often required by medical confidentiality laws). The standard dct player is the Express Scribe Transcription Player.
  • flac – a lossless compression codec. You can think of lossless compression as like zip but for audio. If you compress a PCM file to flac and then restore it again it will be a perfect copy of the original.
  • au – the standard audio file format used by Sun, Unix and Java.
  • aiff – the standard audio file format used by Apple. It is like a wav file for the Mac.
  • vox – the vox format most commonly uses the Dialogic ADPCM (Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation) codec. Similar to other ADPCM formats, it compresses to 4-bits. Vox format files are similar to wave files except that the vox files contain no information about the file itself so the codec sample rate and number of channels must first be specified in order to play a vox file.
  • raw – a raw file can contain audio in any codec but is usually used with PCM audio data. It is rarely used except for technical tests.

Proprietary Formats (supported by our software)

  • wma – the popular Windows Media Audio format owned by Microsoft. Designed with Digital Rights Management (DRM) abilities for copy protection. Sample .wma file.
  • aac – the Advanced Audio Coding format is based on the MPEG4 audio standard owned by Dolby. A copy-protected version of this format has been developed by Apple for use in music downloaded from their iTunes Music Store.
  • atrac (.wav) – the older style Sony ATRAC format. It always has a .wav file extension. To open these files simply install the ATRAC3 drivers.
  • ra – a Real Audio format designed for streaming audio over the Internet. The .ra format allows files to be stored in a self-contained fashion on a computer, with all of the audio data contained inside the file itself.
  • ram – a text file that contains a link to the Internet address where the Real Audio file is stored. The .ram file contains no audio data itself.
  • dss – Digital Speech Standard files are an Olympus proprietary format. It is a fairly old and poor codec.
  • msv – a Sony proprietary format for Memory Stick compressed voice files. You might need a Sony plugin to load this.
  • dvf – a Sony proprietary format for compressed voice files; commonly used by Sony dictation recorders. You might need a Sony plugin to load this.
Source: http://www.nchsoftware.com/


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Notulensi secara Umum

Secara singkat, notula pertemuan atau populer disebut notulensi berisi informasi mengenai:

  • catatan atau notula pertemuan sebelumnya
  • hal-hal yang muncul dari catatan/notula terakhir
  • agenda pertemuan
  • perihal lainnya

Sebaiknya menulis ide pokok dari pembicaraan daripada seluruh kalimat. Oleh karena itu, notulen perlu mengetahui kata-kata kunci dalam rapat/pertemuan tersebut. Berikut ini adalah beberapa kata kunci yang dapat membantu kita menulis notula atau transkrip intelligent:

  • usulan/diusulkan/mengusulkan,
  • janji/perjanjian/menjanjikan,
  • keputusan/diputuskan,
  • persetujuan/disetujui,
  • diajukan/pengajuan/mengajukan,
  • disebutkan,
  • dilaporkan/pelaporan/laporan,
  • rekomendasi/direkomendasikan/merekomendasikan,
  • dipertanyakan/mempertanyakan,
  • penjelasan,
  • penekanan/ditekankan,
  • keluhan.

http://www.theenglishweb.com/writing-minutes-of-a-meeting-2.php.html

 


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Sekilas tentang Pencatatan

Transkripsi adalah proses mengubah file digital audio / suara yang direkam menjadi bahan teks. Bahan tersebut disimpan pada media elektronik yang dengan mudah disebarluaskan ke orang lain.

Umumnya orang memahami bahwa 30 menit rekaman memakan waktu 30 menit untuk menuliskan. Namun, itu tidak benar. Kita berbicara lebih cepat daripada  menulis atau mengetik. Hal ini berlaku umum dalam berbagai bahasa karena kita berbicara empat kali lebih cepat dari kemampuan mengetik dan tujuh kali lebih cepat dari yang dapat kita tulis.

Standar industri transkripsi mengacu pada Panduan Standar Produksi Industri (1998) yang diterbitkan oleh OBC, Columbus, OH, USA memperkirakan waktu DUA jam yang diperlukan untuk menuliskan 30 menit pembicaraan/diskusi yang direkam dengan baik. Oleh karena itu biasanya memerlukan MINIMAL 4 jam untuk menuliskan rekaman satu jam dan tergantung pada sejumlah faktor.

Jenis hasil akhir yang diminta pelanggan berdampak pada waktu yang diperlukan untuk penyelesaian transkrip. Waktu yang disebutkan di atas didasarkan pada transkrip Intelligent Verbatim karena itu adalah pilihan yang paling efektif. Intelligent verbatim akan dibahas dalam artikel lain. Jika pelanggan memerlukan transkrip Verbatim Lengkap, yang akan menambah waktu kira-kira 1 sampai 3 jam. Versi Transkrip Edit akan menambahkan antara 1 sampai 2 jam. Kualitas rekaman yang buruk akan menambah waktu menjadi lebih lama.

Transkripsi melayani beberapa tujuan.

Pencatatan proses yang ditulis dengan jelas akan membantu banyak hal misalnya persiapa dosen mengajar, kunjungan fakultas, seminar, konferensi dan acara serupa di mana Anda bisa menyajikan studi kasus secara rinci.